Shadow Government

RIP, Inter-American Democratic Charter

Next week, leaders from Latin American and the Caribbean will assemble in a jovial atmosphere in undemocratic Cuba to effectively bury the Inter-American Democratic Charter. That historic document, signed by all countries in the Western Hemisphere (excepting, of course, Cuba) on the fateful day of September 11, 2001, set the unprecedented standard that, "The peoples of the Americas have a right to democracy and their governments have an obligation to promote and defend it."

Today, almost 13 years later, the charter has been rendered meaningless -- and, worse, no one seems to care.

Perhaps the Organization of American States (OAS) -- which proudly features the charter on its website -- would have a comment on the utter incongruity of regional leaders supposedly obligated to promote and defend democracy summiteering in Cuba? Well, to find Secretary-General José Miguel Insulza you would have to ring him up in his hotel in Havana, as he is Gen. Raúl Castro's "Special Guest" for the summit -- the first OAS secretary-general to travel to Cuba since it was expelled from the group in 1962.

Officially, the 32 regional leaders and representatives will be attending a summit of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), an organization championed by late Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez and expressly formed to exclude the United States and Canada. Castro is winding down his year as CELAC's "President," a title awarded him despite the fact that CELAC mandates "respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms" to participate as a member.

Cuban blogger Yoani Sánchez has reported how the Castro regime is preparing for its guests' arrival:

"The clandestine and officially ‘unpresentable' Havana has been warned that it must be quiet, very quiet. The beggars are being held until the Summit is over, the pimps warned to maintain control over their girls and boys, while members of the political police visit the homes of the opposition. The illegal market is also being held in check. ‘Calm down, let's have a little calm,' the police repeat in a threatening tone."

Still, Cuba's brave dissident community has announced plans for a parallel forum on democracy in Havana to run concurrent with the CELAC summit. According to the Miami Herald, however, "[b]arring last-minute surprises," summit participants "will skip the international diplomatic practice of meeting with opposition leaders or independent civil society groups during their trip to Cuba."

But as one dissident told the Herald, "My message for the visiting leaders would be that they shouldn't make themselves accomplices of the Castro brothers' dictatorship.... They should instead side with the Cuban people, so that the government gets the message that it has to change."

Unfortunately, Barack Obama's administration has undercut the U.S. position to speak out about a regional summit in Havana, since a senior State Department official just traveled there earlier this month for what he called "respectful and thoughtful" discussions with the regime.

What the travesty in Cuba demonstrates is that the cult of Hugo Chávez still hangs over the region like a plague. It is not enough anymore for the serious leaders of the region to continue to politely indulge the antics of the loudmouthed, blame-placing populists and their retrograde agendas. Wallowing in historical grievance, vitiating the Inter-American Democratic Charter, and playing to people's worst instincts may be an effective mix for maintaining political power, but it is a terrible way to develop a 21st-century economy. Other regions of the world are moving quickly and with purpose to develop their economies by embedding them in the international trading system. If the adults in Latin America don't step up soon, the region will only continue to lose valuable time to compete.

Photo: YAMIL LAGE/AFP/Getty Images

Shadow Government

How Well Are the Guardians Guarding the Nuclear Arsenal?

I started out in this business looking at the command and control of nuclear weapons in the United States. This was a hot topic in the late Cold War because many experts believed that the likeliest way the superpower rivalry would end in catastrophe would be through some sort of accidental war arising out of a series of improbable but possible command-and-control failures, as distinct from a premeditated, bolt-from-the-blue attack. By the late 1980s and early 1990s, enough material about near accidents from the earlier days of the Cold War had emerged to give many people reason to look skeptically about the quality and reliability of the U.S. command-and-control system.

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the associated collapse of the Soviet military-industrial complex shifted the focus of concern from the United States onto the former Soviet Union. Whatever problems there might be in the U.S. system, it was obvious that the problems in the former Soviet nuclear command-and-control system were more serious and more urgent. One of the great bipartisan successes of the post-Cold War era, one that many experts would have bet would not succeed as well as it did, was the effort to establish a reasonable threshold of safety and security in the former Soviet arsenal. There is still work to be done there, but we are in a vastly better place than we were circa 1992.

Unfortunately, there is mounting evidence that the same cannot be said about the U.S. arsenal. There has been an alarming spate of stories about serious deficiencies in the command-and-control system set up to preserve the safety and security of the U.S. nuclear arsenal: an out-of-control Air Force general partying in Moscow, a senior nuclear commander with a gambling problem, launch control officers systematically violating safety rules, launch control officers systematically cheating on certification tests, and launch control officers with a pervasive drug problem. These stories could have been ripped from the headlines of the collapsing Soviet Union, but they are all from this past year and involve the U.S. nuclear command-and-control system.

The bad stories have culminated to the point where Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel has ordered a top-to-bottom review. This is welcome and perhaps even overdue.

The nuclear command-and-control system consists of hardware, software, and wetware. Hardware involves the technical safety and security measures, such as coded locks and other devices that work to thwart an unauthorized or accidental detonation. Software involves the administrative procedures and rules, such as the two-man rule or code-management systems, that specify how the hardware will be used. Wetware involves the professionalism and reliability of the men and women who are administering the "software" and are custodians of the "hardware."

A rule of thumb is that hardware is trumped by software and software is trumped by wetware. The launching mechanisms can be protected behind an impregnable fortress, but if there are no administrative rules about keeping the doors locked, the expensive hardware won't protect you. And you can have carefully drafted rules that provide maximum security, but if the human operators refuse to obey the rules and get away with flouting them, then the rules don't provide real protection.

The string of horrifying stories may just be coincidence, but they sure look like they point to a wetware problem. The senior nuclear commanders have assured the defense secretary that there is no systematic wetware problem. Proving that is the case will be the vital mission of Hagel's review panel. And if it is not the case, figuring out how to make it so will be one of the highest national security priorities Hagel, and the country, will face this year.